What is Blockchain? Everything You Need to Know About Blockchain.

On the off chance that you have been following banking, contributing, or cryptographic money in the course of the most recent ten years, you may have heard the expression “blockchain,” the record-keeping innovation behind the Bitcoin network.


  • Blockchain is a particular kind of information base.
  • It contrasts from a common information base in the manner it stores data; blockchains store information in squares that are then affixed together.
  • As new information comes in it is gone into a new square. When the square is loaded up with information it is affixed onto the past square, which makes the information fastened together in sequential request.
  • Various sorts of data can be put away on a blockchain however the most well-known use so far has been as a record for exchanges.
  • For Bitcoin’s situation, blockchain is utilized in a decentralized way so that no single individual or gathering has control—rather, all clients by and large hold control.
  • Decentralized blockchains are unchanging, which implies that the information entered is irreversible. For Bitcoin, this implies that exchanges are forever recorded and visible to anybody.

What is Blockchain?

Blockchain appears to be muddled, and it unquestionably can be, yet its central idea is actually very basic. A blockchain is a kind of information base. To have the option to comprehend blockchain, it serves to initially comprehend what an information base really is.

An information base is an assortment of data that is put away electronically on a PC framework. Data, or information, in information bases, is ordinarily organized in table configuration to take into consideration simpler looking and sifting for explicit data. What is the distinction between somebody utilizing an accounting page to store data as opposed to an information base?

Accounting pages are intended for one individual, or a little gathering of individuals, to store and access restricted measures of data. Conversely, a data set is intended to house fundamentally bigger measures of data that can be gotten to, sifted, and controlled rapidly and effectively by quite a few clients immediately.

Huge information bases accomplish this by lodging information on workers that are made of ground-breaking PCs. These workers can at times be fabricated utilizing hundreds or thousands of PCs to have the computational force and capacity limit important for some clients to get to the information base at the same time. While an accounting page or information base might be open to quite a few people, it is regularly claimed by a business and overseen by a delegated person that has unlimited authority over how it functions and the information inside it.

So how does a blockchain vary from an information base?

Capacity Structure

One key contrast between a regular information base and a blockchain is the manner in which the information is organized. A blockchain gathers data together in gatherings, otherwise called blocks, that hold sets of data. Squares have certain capacity limits and, when filled, are bound onto the recently filled square, framing a chain of information known as the “blockchain.” All new data that follows that newly added block is arranged into a recently shaped square that will at that point additionally be added to the chain once filled.

An information base structures its information into tables while a blockchain, similar to its name suggests, structures its information into pieces (impedes) that are affixed together. This makes it so all blockchains are information bases yet not all information bases are blockchains. This framework additionally characteristically makes an irreversible course of events of information when actualized in a decentralized nature. At the point when a square is filled it is unchangeable and turns into a piece of this course of events. Each square in the chain is given a definite timestamp when it is added to the chain.

Transaction Process

What is Blockchain?

Attributes of Cryptocurrency

Attributes of Cryptocurrency


To comprehend blockchain, it is informational to see it with regards to how it has been executed by Bitcoin. Like an information base, Bitcoin needs an assortment of PCs to store its blockchain. For Bitcoin, this blockchain is only a particular kind of information base that stores each Bitcoin exchange ever constructed. For Bitcoin’s situation, and dissimilar to most information bases, these PCs are not all under one rooftop, and every PC or gathering of PCs is worked by a novel individual or gathering of people.

Envision that an organization claims a worker involved 10,000 PCs with an information base holding the entirety of its customer’s record data. This organization has a stockroom containing these PCs under one rooftop and has full control of every one of these PCs and all the data contained inside them. Likewise, Bitcoin comprises thousands of PCs, yet every PC or gathering of PCs that hold its blockchain is in an alternate geographic area and they are completely worked by isolated people or gatherings of individuals. These PCs that cosmetics Bitcoin’s organization are called hubs.

In this model, Bitcoin’s blockchain is utilized in a decentralized way. Nonetheless, private brought together blockchains, where the PCs that make up its organization are possessed and worked by a solitary substance, do exist.

In a blockchain, every hub has a full record of the information that has been put away on the blockchain since its commencement. For Bitcoin, the information is the whole history of all Bitcoin exchanges. In the event that one hub has a blunder in its information, it can utilize a great many different hubs as a source of perspective highlight right itself. Thusly, nobody hub inside the organization can change the data held inside it. Along these lines, the historical backdrop of exchanges in each square that make up Bitcoin’s blockchain is irreversible.

On the off chance that one client alters Bitcoin’s record of exchanges, all different hubs would cross-reference one another and effectively pinpoint the hub with the erroneous data. This framework assists with building up a precise and straightforward request for occasions. For Bitcoin, this data is a rundown of exchanges, however, it likewise is workable for a blockchain to hold an assortment of data like legitimate agreements, state distinguishing pieces of proof, or an organization’s item stock.

To change how that framework functions or the data put away inside it, a larger part of the decentralized organization’s processing force would have to concede to said changes. This guarantees that whatever changes do happen are to the greatest advantage of the dominant part.


Due to the decentralized idea of Bitcoin’s blockchain, everything exchanges can be straightforwardly seen by either having an individual hub or by utilizing blockchain pioneers that permit anybody to see exchanges happening live. Every hub has its own duplicate of the chain that gets refreshed as new squares are affirmed and added. This implies that on the off chance that you needed to, you could follow Bitcoin any place it goes.

For instance, trades have been hacked in the past where the individuals who held Bitcoin on the trade lost everything. While the programmer might be completely mysterious, the Bitcoins that they extricated are effectively discernible. In the event that the Bitcoins that were taken in a portion of these hacks were to be moved or spent someplace, it would be known.

Is Blockchain Secure?

Blockchain innovation represents the issues of security and trust severally. To begin with, new squares are constantly put away straightly and sequentially. That is, they are constantly added to the “end” of the blockchain. On the off chance that you investigate Bitcoin’s blockchain, you’ll see that each square has a situation on the chain, called a “tallness.” As of November 2020, the square’s stature had arrived at 656,197 squares up until now.

After a square has been added to the furthest limit of the blockchain, it is exceptionally hard to return and adjust the substance of the square except if the larger part arrived at an agreement to do as such. That is on the grounds that each square contains its own hash, alongside the hash of the square before it, just as the recently referenced time stamp. Hash codes are made by a numerical capacity that transforms advanced data into a series of numbers and letters. On the off chance that that data is altered in any capacity, the hash code changes too.

Here’s the reason that is imperative to security. Suppose a programmer needs to change the blockchain and take Bitcoin from every other person. If they somehow happened to adjust their own single duplicate, it would at this point don’t line up with every other person’s duplicate. At the point when every other person cross-references their duplicates against one another, they would see this one duplicate stick out and that programmer’s variant of the chain would be given away a role as ill-conceived.

Prevailing with such a hack would necessitate that the programmer all the while control and modify 51% of the duplicates of the blockchain so their new duplicate turns into the larger part duplicate and in this manner, the settled upon the chain. Such an assault would likewise require an enormous measure of cash and assets as they would have to re-try the entirety of the squares since they would now have distinctive timestamps and hash codes.

Because of the size of Bitcoin’s organization and how quick it is developing, the expense to pull off such an accomplishment would likely be unrealistic. In addition to the fact that this would be very costly, yet it would likewise likely be vain. Doing something like this would not go unnoticed, as organization individuals would see such extraordinary modifications to the blockchain. The organization individuals would then fork off to another form of the chain that has not been influenced.

This would cause the assaulted rendition of Bitcoin to plunge in worth, making the assault at last trivial as the troublemaker has control of a useless resource. The equivalent would happen if the troublemaker were to assault the new fork of Bitcoin. It is fabricated along these lines so that partaking in the organization is definitely more monetarily boosted than assaulting it.

Bitcoin V/S Blockchain

The objective of blockchain is to permit advanced data to be recorded and disseminated, however not altered. Blockchain innovation was first delineated in 1991 by Stuart Haber and W. Scott Stornetta, two scientists who needed to execute a framework where record timestamps couldn’t be altered. Yet, it wasn’t until very nearly twenty years after the fact, with the dispatch of Bitcoin in January 2009, that blockchain had its first true application.

The Bitcoin convention is based on a blockchain. In an examination paper presenting the advanced money, Bitcoin’s pseudonymous maker, Satoshi Nakamoto, alluded to it as “another electronic money framework that is completely distributed, with no confided in an outsider.”

The critical thing to comprehend here is that Bitcoin simply utilizes blockchain as a way to straightforwardly record a record of installments, yet blockchain can, in principle, be utilized to permanently record quite a few information focuses. As talked about over, this could be as exchanges, votes in a political decision, item inventories, state IDs, deeds to homes, and significantly more.

Right now, there is a huge assortment of blockchain-based activities hoping to execute blockchain in approaches to help society other than recording exchanges. One genuine model is that of blockchain being utilized as an approach to casting a ballot in fair races. The idea of blockchain’s changelessness implies that fake democratic would get undeniably more hard to happen.

For instance, a democratic framework could work with the end goal that every resident of a nation would be given solitary digital money or token. Every competitor would then be given a particular wallet address, and the electors would send their token or crypto to whichever up-and-comer’s location they wish to decide in favor of. The straightforward and recognizable nature of blockchain would kill the requirement for human vote considering great as the capacity of agitators to mess with actual polling forms.

How is Blockchain Used?

As we presently know, blocks on Bitcoin’s blockchain store information about financial exchanges. Yet, incidentally, blockchain is really a dependable method of putting away information about different kinds of exchanges, too.

A few organizations that have just consolidated blockchain incorporate Walmart, Pfizer, AIG, Siemens, Unilever, and a large group of others. For instance, IBM has made its Food Trust blockchain1 to follow the excursion that food items take to get to its areas.

For what reason do this? The food business has seen endless episodes of e Coli, salmonella, listeria, just as dangerous materials being inadvertently acquainted with nourishments. Previously, it has taken a long time to discover the wellspring of these episodes or the reason for ailment from what individuals are eating.

Utilizing blockchain enables brands to follow a food item’s course from its source, through each stop it makes, lastly its conveyance. In the event that a food is discovered to be tainted, at that point it tends to be followed right back through each stop to its birthplace. That, however these organizations can likewise now observe everything else it might have interacted with, permitting the distinguishing proof of the issue to happen far sooner, possibly sparing lives. This is one illustration of blockchains by and by, however there are numerous different types of blockchain usage.

Banking and Finance

Maybe no industry stands to profit by coordinating blockchain into its business activities more than banking. Monetary organizations just work during business hours, five days every week. That implies in the event that you attempt to store a mind Friday at 6 p.m., you will probably need to stand by until Monday morning to see that cash hit your record. Regardless of whether you do set aside your installment during business hours, the exchange can at present take one to three days to check because of the sheer volume of exchanges that banks need to settle. Blockchain, then again, never rests.

By incorporating blockchain into banks, shoppers can see their exchanges prepared in as meager as 10 minutes,2 fundamentally the time it takes to add a square to the blockchain, paying little mind to occasions or the hour of day or week. With blockchain, banks likewise have the occasion to trade assets between foundations all the more rapidly and safely. In the stock exchanging business, for instance, the repayment and clearing cycle can take as long as three days (or more, if exchanging globally), implying that the cash and offers are frozen for that timeframe.

Given the size of the entireties in question, even the couple of days that the cash is on the way can convey huge expenses and dangers for banks. European bank Santander and its examination accomplices put the expected reserve funds at $15 billion to $20 billion a year.3 Capgemini, a French consultancy, appraises that buyers could set aside to $16 billion in banking and protection expenses each year4 through blockchain-based applications.


Blockchain structures the bedrock for cryptographic forms of money like Bitcoin. The U.S. dollar is constrained by the Federal Reserve. Under this focal power framework, a client’s information and cash are actually at the impulse of their bank or government. On the off chance that a client’s bank is hacked, the customer’s private data is in danger. On the off chance that the customer’s bank breakdowns or they live in a nation with a shaky government, the estimation of their cash might be in danger. In 2008, a portion of the banks that ran out of cash were rescued mostly utilizing citizen cash. These are the concerns out of which Bitcoin was first considered and created.

By spreading its tasks over an organization of PCs, blockchain permits Bitcoin and other cryptographic forms of money to work without the requirement for a focal power. This lessens hazard as well as dispenses with a significant number of the handling and exchange charges. It can likewise give those in nations with flimsy monetary standards or monetary foundations a more steady cash with more applications and a more extensive organization of people and establishments they can work with, both locally and globally.

Utilizing digital money wallets for bank accounts or as a methods for installment is particularly significant for the individuals who have no state ID. A few nations might be war-torn or have governments that come up short on any genuine framework to give distinguishing proof. Residents of such nations might not approach reserve funds or money market funds and subsequently, no real way to securely store riches.

Medical services

Medical services suppliers can use blockchain to safely store their patients’ clinical records. At the point when a clinical record is created and marked, it tends to be composed into the blockchain, which gives patients the confirmation and certainty that the record can’t be changed. These individual wellbeing records could be encoded and put away on the blockchain with a private key, so they are just open by specific people, accordingly guaranteeing security.

Records of Property

In the event that you have ever invested energy in your nearby Recorder’s Office, you will realize that the way toward recording property rights is both difficult and wasteful. Today, an actual deed must be conveyed to an administration worker at the nearby chronicle office, where it is physically gone into the province’s focal information base and public record. On account of a property question, cases to the property must be accommodated with the public list.

This cycle isn’t simply expensive and tedious—it is likewise filled with human mistakes, where every error makes the following property proprietorship less productive. Blockchain can possibly wipe out the requirement for filtering reports and finding actual documents in a neighborhood recording office. In the event that property possession is put away and checked on the blockchain, proprietors can believe that their deed is precise and forever recorded.

In war-torn nations or zones that have practically zero government or monetary framework, and positively no “Recorder’s Office,” it very well may be almost difficult to demonstrate responsibility for property. On the off chance that a gathering of individuals living in quite a zone can use blockchain, straightforward and away from of property proprietorship could be set up.

Shrewd Contracts

A savvy contract is a PC code that can be incorporated into the blockchain to encourage, check, or arrange an agreement understanding. Shrewd agreements work under a bunch of conditions that clients consent to. At the point when those conditions are met, the provisions of the arrangement are naturally completed.

State, for instance, a potential inhabitant might want to rent a loft utilizing a savvy contract. The landowner consents to give the inhabitant the entryway code to the condo when the occupant pays the security store. Both the inhabitant and the property manager would send their individual segments of the arrangement to the keen agreement, which would clutch and consequently trade the entryway code for the security store on the date the rent starts. On the off chance that the property manager doesn’t gracefully the entryway code by the rent date, the keen agreement discounts the security store. This would dispose of the charges and cycles commonly connected with the utilization of a public accountant, outsider middle person, or attornies.

Flexibly Chains

As in the IBM Food Trust model, providers can utilize blockchain to record the inceptions of materials that they have bought. This would permit organizations to confirm the credibility of their items, alongside such basic marks as “Natural,” “Nearby,” and “Reasonable Trade.”

As revealed by Forbes, the food business is progressively embracing the utilization of blockchain to follow the way and wellbeing of food all through the homestead to-client venture.

Casting a ballot

As referenced, blockchain could be utilized to encourage a cutting edge casting a ballot framework. Casting a ballot with blockchain conveys the possibility to kill political decision misrepresentation and lift elector turnout, as was tried in the November 2018 midterm races in West Virginia. Using blockchain in this way would make casts a ballot almost difficult to alter. The blockchain convention would likewise keep up straightforwardness in the discretionary cycle, lessening the workforce expected to direct a political race and giving authorities almost moment results. This would dispose of the requirement for describes or any genuine worry that extortion may compromise the political race.

Points of interest and Disadvantages of Blockchain

For the entirety of its intricacy, blockchain’s potential as a decentralized type of record-keeping is nearly unbounded. From more noteworthy client protection and elevated security to bring down preparing expenses and less blunders, blockchain innovation might just observe applications past those plot above. However, there are additionally a few disservices.


  • Improved precision by eliminating human association in check
  • Cost decreases by wiping out outsider check
  • Decentralization makes it harder to mess with
  • Exchanges are secure, private, and proficient
  • Straightforward innovation
  • Gives a financial other option and approach to protect individual data for residents of nations with temperamental or immature governments


  • Huge innovation cost related to mining bitcoin
  • Low exchanges every second
  • History of utilization in unlawful exercises
  • Guideline
  • Here are the selling purposes of blockchain for organizations available today in more detail.
  • Preferences of Blockchain

The precision of the Chain

Exchanges on the blockchain network are endorsed by an organization of thousands of PCs. This eliminates practically all human association in the confirmation cycle, bringing about the less human mistake and an exact record of data. Regardless of whether a PC on the organization were to commit a computational error, the mistake would simply be made to one duplicate of the blockchain. All together for that mistake to spread to the remainder of the blockchain, it would be made by in any event 51% of the organization’s PCs—a close to inconceivability for an enormous and developing organization the size of Bitcoin’s.

Cost Reductions

Normally, buyers pay a bank to confirm an exchange, a public accountant to sign a record, or a clergyman to play out a marriage. Blockchain takes out the requirement for outsider confirmation and, with it, their related expenses. Entrepreneurs bring about a little expense at whatever point they acknowledge installments utilizing Mastercards, for instance, since banks and installment preparing organizations to need to handle those exchanges. Bitcoin, then again, doesn’t have a focal power and has restricted exchange expenses.


Blockchain doesn’t store any of its data in a focal area. All things considered, the blockchain is duplicated and spread over an organization of PCs. At whatever point another square is added to the blockchain, each PC on the organization refreshes its blockchain to mirror the change. By spreading that data over an organization, instead of putting away it in one focal information base, blockchain turns out to be harder to mess with. In the event that a duplicate of the blockchain fell under the control of a programmer, just a solitary duplicate of the data, as opposed to the whole organization, would be undermined.

Proficient Transactions

Exchanges set through a focal authority can take up to a couple of days to settle. In the event that you endeavor to store a beware of Friday night, for instance, you may not really observe assets in your record until Monday morning. Though monetary foundations work during business hours, five days per week, blockchain is working 24 hours every day, seven days per week, and 365 days per year. Exchanges can be finished in as meager as ten minutes and can be viewed as secure after only a couple of hours. This is especially valuable for cross-fringe exchanges, which as a rule take any longer as a result of time-region issues and the way that all gatherings must affirm installment handling.

Private Transactions

Numerous blockchain networks work as open information bases, implying that anybody with a web association can see a rundown of the organization’s exchange history. Despite the fact that clients can get to insights regarding exchanges, they can’t get to recognizing data about the clients making those exchanges. It is a typical misperception that blockchain networks like bitcoin are unknown when indeed they are just classified.

That is, the point at which a client unveils exchanges, their special code called a public key, is recorded on the blockchain, as opposed to their own data. In the event that an individual has made a Bitcoin buy on a trade that requires recognizable proof then the individual’s character is as yet connected to their blockchain address, however an exchange, in any event, when attached to an individual’s name, doesn’t uncover any close to home data.

Secure Transactions

When an exchange is recorded, its genuineness must be confirmed by the blockchain network. A huge number of PCs on the blockchain hurry to affirm that the subtleties of the buy are right. After a PC has approved the exchange, it is added to the blockchain block. Each square on the blockchain contains its own exceptional hash, alongside the novel hash of the square before it. At the point when the data on a square is altered in any capacity, that square’s hashcode changes—in any case, the hash code on the square after it would not. This disparity makes it very hard for data on the blockchain to be changed without notice.


Most blockchains are totally open-source programming. This implies that anybody and everybody can see its code. This enables evaluators to audit digital forms of money like Bitcoin for security. This likewise implies that there is no genuine expert on who controls Bitcoin’s code or how it is altered. Along these lines, anybody can propose changes or moves up to the framework. In the event that a lion’s share of the organization clients concur that the new form of the code with the redesign is sound and advantageous then Bitcoin can be refreshed.

Banking the Unbanked

Maybe the most significant aspect of blockchain and Bitcoin is the capacity for anybody, paying little mind to identity, sexual orientation, or social foundation, to utilize it. As per the world bank, there are almost 2 billion grown-ups that don’t have ledgers or any methods for putting away their cash or wealth.5 Nearly these people live in agricultural nations where the economy is in its early stages and completely subject to money.

These individuals regularly bring in little cash that is paid in actual money. They at that point need to store this actual money in shrouded areas in their homes or places of living leaving them subject to theft or superfluous savagery. Keys to a bitcoin wallet can be put away on a bit of paper, a modest PDA, or even retained if vital. For a great many people, all things considered, these choices are more effortlessly covered up than a little heap of money under a sleeping pad.

Blockchains of things to come are additionally searching for answers for not exclusively be a unit of record for abundance stockpiling, yet additionally to store clinical records, property rights, and an assortment of other legitimate agreements.

Weaknesses of Blockchain

While there are huge potential gains to the blockchain, there are likewise critical difficulties to its appropriation. The barriers to the use of blockchain innovation today are not simply specialized. The genuine difficulties are political and administrative, generally, to avoid mentioning a large number of hours (read: cash) of custom programming plan and back-end programming needed to coordinate blockchain to current business organizations. Here is a portion of the difficulties holding up the traffic of boundless blockchain selection.

Innovation Cost

In spite of the fact that blockchain can set aside clients’ cash on exchange expenses, innovation is a long way from free. The “evidence of work” framework that bitcoin uses to approve exchanges, for instance, burns-through immense measures of computational force. In reality, the force from a great many PCs on the bitcoin network is near what Denmark burns-through every year. Accepting power expenses of $0.03~$0.05 per kilowatt-hour, mining costs elite of equipment costs are about $5,000~$7,000 per coin.10

Notwithstanding the expenses of mining bitcoin, clients keep on driving up their power bills to approve exchanges on the blockchain. That is on the grounds that when diggers add a square to the bitcoin blockchain, they are remunerated with enough bitcoin to make their time and energy advantageous. With regards to blockchains that don’t utilize cryptographic money, nonetheless, diggers should be paid or in any case, boosted to approve exchanges.

A few answers for these issues are starting to emerge. For instance, bitcoin mining ranches have been set up to utilize sunlight based force, overabundance gaseous petrol from deep oil drilling destinations, or force from wind ranches.

Speed Inefficiency

Speed Inefficiency

Bitcoin is an ideal contextual investigation for the potential shortcomings of blockchain. Bitcoin’s “evidence of work” framework takes around ten minutes to add another square to the blockchain. At that rate, it’s assessed that the blockchain organization can just oversee around seven exchanges for each second (TPS). Albeit other cryptographic forms of money, for example, Ethereum performs in a way that is better than bitcoin, they are as yet restricted by blockchain. Heritage brand Visa, for setting, can deal with 24,000 TPS.

Answers for this issue have been being developed for quite a long time. There are at present blockchains that are bragging more than 30,000 exchanges for every second.

Criminal behavior

While secrecy on the blockchain network shields clients from hacks and jelly security, it likewise takes into consideration illicit exchanging and action on the blockchain network. The most referred to illustration of blockchain being utilized for unlawful exchanges is likely the Silk Road, an online “dull web” drug commercial center working from February 2011 until October 2013 when it was closed somewhere around the FBI.6

The site permitted clients to peruse the site without being followed utilizing the Tor program and make unlawful buys in Bitcoin or other cryptographic forms of money. Current U.S. guidelines require monetary specialist co-ops to get data about their clients when they open a record, check the character of every client, and affirm that clients don’t show up on any rundown of known or suspected psychological militant associations.

This framework can be viewed as both a star and a con. It gives anybody admittance to monetary records yet in addition permits crooks to all the more effectively execute. Many have contended that the great employments of crypto, such as banking the unbanked world, exceed the terrible employments of cryptographic money, particularly when most criminal behavior is as yet achieved through untraceable money.


Numerous in the crypto space have communicated worries about government guideline over digital forms of money. While it is getting progressively troublesome and close to difficult to end something like Bitcoin as its decentralized organization develops, governments could hypothetically make it unlawful to possess digital currencies or partake in their organizations.

After some time this worry has developed more modest as enormous organizations like PayPal start to permit the possession and utilization of digital forms of money on its foundation.

What’s Next for Blockchain?

What's Next for Blockchain?

First proposed as an examination venture in 1991,7 blockchain is serenely subsiding into its late twenties. Like most recent college grads its age, blockchain has seen something reasonable of public examination in the course of the most recent twenty years, with organizations around the globe conjecturing about what the innovation is prepared to do and where it’s going in the years to come.

With numerous commonsense applications for the innovation previously being actualized and investigated, blockchain is, at last, becoming well known at age 27, in no little part due to bitcoin and cryptographic money. As a popular expression on the tongue of each speculator in the country, blockchain stands to make business and government activities more exact, effective, secure, and modest with fewer brokers.

As we plan to head into the third decade of blockchain, it’s not, at this point an issue of “if” inheritance organizations will get on to the innovation—it’s an issue of “when.”

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Also Read: What is Network Security? Network security defined, explained, and explored

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