Machine Learning | In Simple Words | Definition, History, Applications

Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it learn for themselves.

Machine learning

What is Machine Learning

simple definition:- Machine learning is an application of artificial intelligence (AI) that provides systems the ability to automatically learn and improve from experience without being explicitly programmed. Machine learning focuses on the development of computer programs that can access data and use it to learn for themselves.

Machine learning (ML) is the study of computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience. It is seen as a subset of artificial intelligence. Machine learning algorithms build a mathematical model based on sample data, known as “training data”, in order to make predictions or decisions without being explicitly programmed to do so. Machine learning algorithms are used in a wide variety of applications, such as email filtering and computer vision, where it is difficult or infeasible to develop conventional algorithms to perform the needed tasks.
 
Machine learning is closely related to computational statistics, which focuses on making predictions using computers. The study of mathematical optimization delivers methods, theory, and application domains to the field of machine learning. Data mining is a related field of study, focusing on exploratory data analysis through unsupervised learning. In its application across business problems, machine learning is also referred to as predictive analytics.

History of Machine Learning

The term machine learning was coined in 1959 by Arthur Samuel, an American IBMer and pioneer in the field of computer gaming and artificial intelligence. A representative book of the machine learning research during the 1960s was the Nilsson’s book on Learning Machines, dealing mostly with machine learning for pattern classification. 
 
Interest related to pattern recognition continued into the 1970s, as described by Duda and Hart in 1973. In 1981 a report was given on using teaching strategies so that a neural network learns to recognize 40 characters (26 letters, 10 digits, and 4 special symbols) from a computer terminal.
Machine learning
Tom M. Mitchell provided a widely quoted, more formal definition of the algorithms studied in the machine learning field: “A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P if its performance at tasks in T, as measured by P, improves with experience E.” 
 
This definition of the tasks in which machine learning is concerned offers a fundamentally operational definition rather than defining the field in cognitive terms. This follows Alan Turing’s proposal in his paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, in which the question “Can machines think?” is replaced with the question “Can machines do what we (as thinking entities) can do?”.
 

Machine Learning Methods

Supervised machine learning

Supervised machine learning algorithms can apply what has been learned in the past to new data using labeled examples to predict future events. Starting from the analysis of a known training dataset, the learning algorithm produces an inferred function to make predictions about the output values. 

The system is able to provide targets for any new input after sufficient training. The learning algorithm can also compare its output with the correct, intended output and find errors in order to modify the model accordingly.

unsupervised machine learning

unsupervised machine learning algorithms are used when the information used to train is neither classified nor labeled. Unsupervised learning studies how systems can infer a function to describe a hidden structure from unlabeled data. The system doesn’t figure out the right output, but it explores the data and can draw inferences from datasets to describe hidden structures from unlabeled data.
 

Semi-supervised machine learning

Semi-supervised machine learning algorithms fall somewhere in between supervised and unsupervised learning, since they use both labeled and unlabeled data for training – typically a small amount of labeled data and a large amount of unlabeled data. The systems that use this method are able to considerably improve learning accuracy. 

Usually, semi-supervised learning is chosen when the acquired labeled data requires skilled and relevant resources in order to train it / learn from it. Otherwise, acquiring unlabeled data generally doesn’t require additional resources.

Reinforcement machine learning

Reinforcement machine learning algorithms is a learning method that interacts with its environment by producing actions and discovers errors or rewards. Trial and error search and delayed reward are the most relevant characteristics of reinforcement learning. 

This method allows machines and software agents to automatically determine the ideal behavior within a specific context in order to maximize its performance. Simple reward feedback is required for the agent to learn which action is best; this is known as the reinforcement signal.
Machine learning

Mchine Learning Algorithm

Machine learning algorithms are the engines of machine learning, meaning it is the algorithms that turn a data set into a model. Which kind of algorithm works best (supervised, unsupervised, classification, regression, etc.)
Types of machine Learning Algorithm are listed below:

  1. Linear Regression
  2. Logistic Regression
  3. Decision Tree
  4. SVM
  5. Naive Bayes
  6. kNN
  7. K-Means
  8. Random Forest
  9. Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms
  10. Gradient Boosting algorithm
    • GBM
    • XGBoost
    • LightGBM
    • CatBoost
 

Applications of Machine Learning

1. Image Recognition:

Image recognition is one of the most common applications of machine learning. It is used to identify objects, persons, places, digital images, etc. The popular use case of image recognition and face detection is, Automatic friend tagging suggestion:
 
Facebook provides us a feature of auto friend tagging suggestion. Whenever we upload a photo with our Facebook friends, then we automatically get a tagging suggestion with name, and the technology behind this is machine learning’s face detection and recognition algorithm.
 
It is based on the Facebook project named “Deep Face,” which is responsible for face recognition and person identification in the picture.
 

2. Speech Recognition

While using Google, we get an option of “Search by voice,” it comes under speech recognition, and it’s a popular application of machine learning.
 
Speech recognition is a process of converting voice instructions into text, and it is also known as “Speech to text”, or “Computer speech recognition.” At present, machine learning algorithms are widely used by various applications of speech recognition. Google assistant, Siri, Cortana, and Alexa are using speech recognition technology to follow the voice instructions.
 

3. Traffic prediction:

If we want to visit a new place, we take help of Google Maps, which shows us the correct path with the shortest route and predicts the traffic conditions.
 
It predicts the traffic conditions such as whether traffic is cleared, slow-moving, or heavily congested with the help of two ways:
 
Real Time location of the vehicle form Google Map app and sensors
Average time has taken on past days at the same time.
Everyone who is using Google Map is helping this app to make it better. It takes information from the user and sends back to its database to improve the performance.
 

4. Product recommendations:

Machine learning is widely used by various e-commerce and entertainment companies such as Amazon, Netflix, etc., for product recommendation to the user. Whenever we search for some product on Amazon, then we started getting an advertisement for the same product while internet surfing on the same browser and this is because of machine learning.
 
Google understands the user interest using various machine learning algorithms and suggests the product as per customer interest.
 
As similar, when we use Netflix, we find some recommendations for entertainment series, movies, etc., and this is also done with the help of machine learning.
 

5. Self-driving cars:

One of the most exciting applications of machine learning is self-driving cars. Machine learning plays a significant role in self-driving cars. Tesla, the most popular car manufacturing company is working on self-driving car. It is using unsupervised learning method to train the car models to detect people and objects while driving.
Machine learning

6. Email Spam and Malware Filtering:

Whenever we receive a new email, it is filtered automatically as important, normal, and spam. We always receive an important mail in our inbox with the important symbol and spam emails in our spam box, and the technology behind this is Machine learning. Below are some spam filters used by Gmail:
 
  • Content Filter
  • Header filter
  • General blacklists filter
  • Rules-based filters
  • Permission filters
Some machine learning algorithms such as Multi-Layer Perceptron, Decision tree, and Naïve Bayes classifier are used for email spam filtering and malware detection.
 

7. Virtual Personal Assistant:

We have various virtual personal assistants such as Google assistant, Alexa, Cortana, Siri. As the name suggests, they help us in finding the information using our voice instruction. These assistants can help us in various ways just by our voice instructions such as Play music, call someone, Open an email, Scheduling an appointment, etc.
 
These virtual assistants use machine learning algorithms as an important part.
 
These assistant record our voice instructions, send it over the server on a cloud, and decode it using ML algorithms and act accordingly.
 

8. Online Fraud Detection:

Machine learning is making our online transaction safe and secure by detecting fraud transaction. Whenever we perform some online transaction, there may be various ways that a fraudulent transaction can take place such as fake accounts, fake ids, and steal money in the middle of a transaction. So to detect this, Feed Forward Neural network helps us by checking whether it is a genuine transaction or a fraud transaction.
 
For each genuine transaction, the output is converted into some hash values, and these values become the input for the next round. For each genuine transaction, there is a specific pattern which gets change for the fraud transaction hence, it detects it and makes our online transactions more secure.
 

9. Stock Market trading:

Machine learning is widely used in stock market trading. In the stock market, there is always a risk of up and downs in shares, so for this machine learning’s long short term memory neural network is used for the prediction of stock market trends.
 

10. Medical Diagnosis:

In medical science, machine learning is used for diseases diagnoses. With this, medical technology is growing very fast and able to build 3D models that can predict the exact position of lesions in the brain.
 
It helps in finding brain tumors and other brain-related diseases easily.

11. Automatic Language Translation:

Nowadays, if we visit a new place and we are not aware of the language then it is not a problem at all, as for this also machine learning helps us by converting the text into our known languages. Google’s GNMT (Google Neural Machine Translation) provide this feature, which is a Neural Machine Learning that translates the text into our familiar language, and it called as automatic translation.
 
The technology behind the automatic translation is a sequence to sequence learning algorithm, which is used with image recognition and translates the text from one language to another language.

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