Artificial intelligence (AI) | Definition, History, Types, Applications, etc…

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI) is wide-ranging branch of computer science concerned with building smart machines capable of performing tasks that typically require human intelligence. AI is an interdisciplinary science with multiple approaches, but advancements in machine learning and deep learning are creating a paradigm shift in virtually every sector of the tech industry. 

What is Artificial intelligence (AI)

Artificial intelligence (AI), sometimes called machine intelligence, is intelligence demonstrated by machines, unlike the natural intelligence displayed by humans and animals. Leading AI textbooks define the field as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. Colloquially, the term “artificial intelligence” is often used to describe machines (or computers) that mimic “cognitive” functions that humans associate with the human mind, such as “learning” and “problem-solving”.

Artificial intelligence (AI) was founded as an academic discipline in 1955, and in the years since has experienced several waves of optimism, followed by disappointment and the loss of funding (known as an “AI winter”), followed by new approaches, success, and renewed funding. For most of its history, AI research has been divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. 

These sub-fields are based on technical considerations, such as particular goals (e.g. “robotics” or “machine learning”), the use of particular tools (“logic” or artificial neural networks), or deep philosophical differences. Sub-fields have also been based on social factors (particular institutions or the work of particular researchers).

Artificial intelligence (AI)

History of  Artificial intelligence (AI)

The idea of inanimate objects coming to life as intelligent beings have been around for a long time. The ancient Greeks had myths about robots, and Chinese and Egyptian engineers built automatons.

The beginnings of modern AI can be traced to classical philosophers’ attempts to describe human thinking as a symbolic system. But the field of AI wasn’t formally founded until 1956, at a conference at Dartmouth College, in Hanover, New Hampshire, where the term “artificial intelligence” was coined.

MIT cognitive scientist Marvin Minsky and others who attended the conference were extremely optimistic about AI’s future. “Within a generation. the problem of creating ‘artificial intelligence’ will substantially be solved,” Minsky is quoted as saying in the book “AI: The Tumultuous Search for Artificial Intelligence” (Basic Books, 1994). [Super-Intelligent Machines: 7 Robotic Futures]

But achieving an artificially intelligent being wasn’t so simple. After several reports criticizing progress in AI, government funding and interest in the field dropped off – a period from 1974–80 that became known as the “AI winter.” The field later revived in the 1980s when the British government started funding it again in part to compete with efforts by the Japanese.

The field experienced another major winter from 1987 to 1993, coinciding with the collapse of the market for some of the early general-purpose computers, and reduced government funding.

But research began to pick up again after that, and in 1997, IBM’s Deep Blue became the first computer to beat a chess champion when it defeated Russian grandmaster Garry Kasparov. And in 2011, the computer giant’s question-answering system Watson won the quiz show “Jeopardy!” by beating reigning champions, Brad Rutter and Ken Jennings.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

Key Points to Remember About AI

  1. Artificial intelligence refers to the simulation of human intelligence in machines.
  2. The goals of artificial intelligence include learning, reasoning, and perception.
  3. AI is being used across different industries including finance and healthcare.
  4. Weak AI tends to be simple and single-task oriented, while strong AI carries on tasks that are more complex and human-like. 

Approaches

There are four Approaches related to Artificial Intelligence are below:

  1. Thinking humanly
  2. Thinking rationally
  3. Acting humanly 
  4. Acting rationally

The first two ideas concern thought processes and reasoning, while the others deal with behavior. Norvig and Russell focus particularly on rational agents that act to achieve the best outcome, noting “all the skills needed for the Turing Test also allow an agent to act rationally.” (Russel and Norvig 4). 

Patrick Winston, the Ford professor of artificial intelligence and computer science at MIT, defines AI as “algorithms enabled by constraints, exposed by representations that support models targeted at loops that tie thinking, perception and action together. 

While these definitions may seem abstract to the average person, they help focus the field as an area of computer science and provide a blueprint for infusing machines and programs with machine learning and other subsets of artificial intelligence. While addressing a crowd at the Japan AI Experience in 2017, DataRobot CEO Jeremy Achin began his speech by offering the following definition of how AI is used today:

“AI is a computer system able to perform tasks that ordinarily require human intelligence… Many of these artificial intelligence systems are powered by machine learning, some of them are powered by deep learning and some of them are powered by very boring things like rules.

Artificial intelligence (AI)

HOW IS AI USED?

Artificial intelligence generally falls under two broad categories:

Narrow AI: Sometimes referred to as “Weak AI,” this kind of artificial intelligence operates within a limited context and is a simulation of human intelligence. Narrow AI is often focused on performing a single task extremely well and while these machines may seem intelligent, they are operating under far more constraints and limitations than even the most basic human intelligence.

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI): AGI, sometimes referred to as “Strong AI,” is the kind of artificial intelligence we see in the movies, like the robots from Westworld or Data from Star Trek: The Next Generation. AGI is a machine with general intelligence and, much like a human being, it can apply that intelligence to solve any problem.

Application of AI

Artificial Intelligence has various applications in today’s society. It is becoming essential for today’s time because it can solve complex problems in an efficient way in multiple industries, such as Healthcare, entertainment, finance, education, etc. AI is making our daily life more comfortable and fast.

The following are some sectors which have the application of Artificial Intelligence:

 1. AI in Astronomy

Artificial Intelligence can be very useful to solve complex universe problems. AI technology can be helpful for understanding the universe such as how it works, origin, etc.

2. AI in Healthcare

In the last, five to ten years, AI becoming more advantageous for the healthcare industry and going to have a significant impact on this industry.

Healthcare Industries are applying AI to make a better and faster diagnosis than humans. AI can help doctors with diagnoses and can inform when patients are worsening so that medical help can reach the patient before hospitalization.

3. AI in Gaming

AI can be used for gaming purposes. The AI machines can play strategic games like chess, where the machine needs to think of a large number of possible places.

4. AI in Finance

AI and finance industries are the best matches for each other. The finance industry is implementing automation, chatbot, adaptive intelligence, algorithm trading, and machine learning into financial processes.

5. AI in Data Security

The security of data is crucial for every company and cyber-attacks are growing very rapidly in the digital world. AI can be used to make your data more safe and secure. Some examples such as AEG bot, AI2 Platform, are used to determine software bugs and cyber-attacks in a better way.

6. AI in Social Media

Social Media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, and Snapchat contain billions of user profiles, which need to be stored and managed in a very efficient way. AI can organize and manage massive amounts of data. AI can analyze lots of data to identify the latest trends, hashtags, and requirements of different users.

7. AI in Travel & Transport

AI is becoming highly demanding for travel industries. AI is capable of doing various travel related works such as from making travel arrangement to suggesting the hotels, flights, and best routes to the customers. Travel industries are using AI-powered chatbots which can make human-like interaction with customers for a better and fast response.

8. AI in Automotive Industry

Some Automotive industries are using AI to provide virtual assistants to their use for better performance. Such as Tesla has introduced TeslaBot, an intelligent virtual assistant.

Various Industries are currently working on developing self-driven cars which can make your journey more safe and secure.

9. AI in Robotics:

Artificial Intelligence has a remarkable role in Robotics. Usually, general robots are programmed such that they can perform some repetitive task, but with the help of AI, we can create intelligent robots which can perform tasks with their own experiences without pre-programmed.

Humanoid Robots are the best examples for AI in robotics, recently the intelligent Humanoid robot named Erica and Sophia has been developed which can talk and behave like humans.

10. AI in Entertainment

We are currently using some AI-based applications in our daily life with some entertainment services such as Netflix or Amazon. With the help of ML/AI algorithms, these services show the recommendations for programs or shows.

11. AI in Agriculture

Agriculture is an area that requires various resources, labor, money, and time for the best result. Now a day’s agriculture is becoming digital, and AI is emerging in this field. Agriculture is applying AI as agriculture robotics, solid and crop monitoring, predictive analysis. AI in agriculture can be very helpful for farmers.

12. AI in E-commerce

AI is providing a competitive edge to the e-commerce industry, and it is becoming more demanding in the e-commerce business. AI is helping shoppers to discover associated products with recommended size, color, or even brand.

13. AI in education:

AI can automate grading so that the tutor can have more time to teach. AI chatbot can communicate with students as a teaching assistant.

AI in the future can be work as a personal virtual tutor for students, which will be accessible easily at any time and any place.

 

Artificial intelligence (AI)

ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE EXAMPLES

  • Smart assistants (like Siri and Alexa)
  • Disease mapping and prediction tools
  • Manufacturing and drone robots
  • Optimized, personalized healthcare treatment recommendations
  • Conversational bots for marketing and customer service
  • Robo-advisors for stock trading
  • Spam filters on email
  • Social media monitoring tools for dangerous content or false news
  • Song or TV show recommendations from Spotify and Netflix

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